Typhoid is caused by bacterium salmonella typhi. Bacterium salmonella typhi is only finding in human and is responsible for causing the infectious feverish disease, if not properly treated may lead to serious illness and even sometimes the disease may be fatal.
The bacteria are found only in humans, and are passed to the human by a carrier of bacteria through water or food.
Hygiene and Disease
Hygiene and sanitary conditions determines the spread of typhoid. Poor hygiene and sanitary conditions in some part of the developing countries , large parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South Africa are responsible for spread of typhoid in these areas. Due to the good hygienic conditions and sanitary conditions in some parts of Europe and US, rare hypoid cases are reported in this part of the world.
The storage of food and food preparation procedure is also a factor for proper hygiene. If any bacteria are present in food before preparation or during storage, it should not multiply.
if some one is exposed to sufficient enough quantity of bacteria capable to cause typhoid, the symptoms of the disease may not start immediately. The days required to begin the symptoms from the day, the person is exposed to bacteria is known as incubation period. Incubation period for typhoid is ten to twenty days and will depend on various factors including the quantity of bacteria, the age and other health conditions of patients.
If after incubation period, mild symptoms appear, the bacteria may be eliminated by mild therapy and the person may become a healthy carrier of the bacteria and infection.
Symptoms of Typhoid
Typhoid is a serious feverish disease and fever is primary symptom of the disease. Some other symptoms include digestive system and small-bowl symptoms if the disease enters in the second phase.
Phases of typhoid fever
There are two phases of the disease as mentioned below.
First Phase: The child's temperature rises slowly to 40 degree centigrade and the condition of child deteriorates continuously and develops additional symptoms such as appetite loss, vomiting, diarrhea, low feeding, coughing, and sweating. Some additional skin symptoms may also develop.
Second Phase: The first phase may be as long as one week and at the end of the week, the child may develop symptoms of intestinal infection. The temperature of the child remains high for second to third week. In the third week, the child also develops severe diarrhea.
Various antibiotics are available in the market and after monitoring the symptoms the doctor will recommend appropriate antibiotic and monitor the effect of antibiotic in-patient for a few days or until the condition of patient is stable. It is also advised the maintaining good hygienic and sanitary conditions will prevent the recurrence of the disease.
if you suspect a potential typhoid exposure, you should take a vaccine or oral medicine to protect you from infection of salmonella typhi at least two weeks prior. The inject able vaccines has very few side effect and the injection is efficient for three years.
Summary: Typhoid is a serious disease caused by bacteria salmonella typhi and is common in developing countries where unhygienic conditions prevail. The bacterial infection takes place from human and if infected, a proper treatment of antibiotic should be taken.